This article gives an analysis of the behavior of polarizing grids and reflecting polarizers by solving Maxwell's equations, for arbitrary angles of incidence and grid rotation, for cases where the excitation is provided by an incident plane wave or a beam of radiation. The scattering and impedance matrix representations are derived and used to solve more complicated configurations of grid assemblies. The results are also compared with data obtained in the calibration of reflecting polarizers at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). From these analysis, we propose a method for choosing the optimum grid parameters (wire radius and spacing). We also provide a study of the effects of two types of errors (in wire separation and radius size) that can be introduced in the fabrication of a grid.